Louis Auzoux (1797-1878), a French doctor, was one of the pre-eminent makers of models of humans and other animals during the 19th century. As a young medical student, he had great difficulty in studying human anatomy since cadavers were difficult to come by and decayed rapidly. Auzoux devised an elegant solution; inspired by the toy puppets sold on the streets of Paris, he started to make papier-maché models of human dissections. In 1822, the same year that he received his medical degree, Auzoux presented his first complete anatomical male figure to the Paris Academy of Medicine, receiving a commendation for his work.
The genius of Auzoux' s models lay in the fact that, not only were they realistic and anatomically accurate, but also they could be taken apart and reassembled by the student. This was the reason that Auzoux called his papier maché models anatomy clastique, from the Greek word klastos, which means broken in pieces.